By Cristiana Ximenes Belo
In this Occasion, the Secretary-General, United Nation, Antonio Guteres, calls on developed countries to commit to providing 0.15 – 0.20 percent of gross national income for official development assistance to underdeveloped countries. And the United Nation proposes Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Stimulus to collect the world’s needs of at least 500 billion US dollars a year to developing countries.
Of those stated in the opening session remark on first summit. For LDC5 program in this year 2023. The participants who participated on this summit composed of all delegation from 46 Least Development Countries (LDCS).
In this opportunity, the President of Timor – Leste, Jose Manuel Ramos Horta, to take a part to expressed and share Timor – Leste challenges, Impacted, cases to the all of delegation from forty six (46) Least Development Country (LDC5), where gathering, to find out the solutions together, during on 6 days in Doha Convention Centre on Summit, and plenary session. Saturday (04/03/2023).
Since the introduction of the concept of Least Developed Countries, the performance of this group remained limited.
“Implementation of the Doha Programme of Action gives a historic opportunity to overcome the current predicament. This process is complex and requires whole-of-government approach. Therefore, my delegation includes key Ministers that will be working on the smooth transition in Timor-Leste, in close collaboration.
Each country will need to have its unique path to graduation, appropriate to its specific circumstances. Nevertheless, it is also important to work together, sharing our practices and lessons and advancing collective action in the interest of the group.
Advancement of the LDCs and eventual graduation is important to show that global development indeed leaves no one behind. The first transition we need to make is from ambition to action and I hope that this conference will help us to do just that.” Ramos Horta estated
The Secretary-General, United Nation, Antonio Guteres, call to Development Countries find ways to have solutions for underdeveloped countries, on his remarks at the opening of UN House in Qatar, Doha, Saturday. (4 March 2023).
UN Secretary stated. “we have seen the eruption of war in Ukraine with a devastating impact on Ukrainians — but also on Least Developed Countries struggling with skyrocketing food and energy costs.
Meanwhile, global tensions and divides are deepening.
We must find ways to come together. And there is perhaps no more important issue around which we can and must unite than in transforming the words of the Doha Programme of Action into results.
We don’t have a moment to lose.
Least Developed Countries are being stranded amidst a rising tide of crisis, uncertainty, climate chaos and deep global injustice.
They are unable to keep pace with lightning-speed technological change.
Systems are stretched or non-existent — from health and education, to social protection, infrastructure and job creation.
Unemployment is rising — especially among young people.
Women are being pushed to the sidelines.
And a deeply biased global financial system is handing Least Developed Countries the rawest of deals.
Least Developed Countries face interest rates that are up to 8 times higher than developedcountries.
And it’s only getting worse.
Today, 25 developing economies are spending over 20 per cent of government revenues not on building schools, not on feeding people, not on expanding opportunities for women and girls — but solely on servicing debt. Some have seen debt-service payments skyrocket by 35 per cent.
Least Developed Countries need a revolution of support across three key areas.
First — they need immediate assistance to rescue the Sustainable Development Goals.
For Least Developed Countries, these goals represent survival itself — from poverty-eradication, to food, health, clean water and sanitation.
This September’s SDG Summit is the centrepiece moment to demonstrate a global commitment for action.
We have put forward an SDG Stimulus to gather the world around the need to provide at least 500 billion US dollars a year to developing countries.
It’s also high time that developed countries live up to their commitment to provide Least-Developed Countries with 0.15 – 0.20 per cent of their Gross National Income for Official Development Assistance.
No more excuses.
We must also expand international efforts to fight tax evasion, money laundering and the illicit financial flows that drain domestic resources.
While no country or region is immune, lower-income countries lose a much higher proportion of their tax revenues to tax abuse — while having the least influence on global taxation rules.
Least Developed Countries also need funding and support for structural transformation to climb the value chain.
To massively invest in manufacturing and technological capabilities, and better infrastructure and transportation networks.
To give women a seat at the decision-making tables of government, business and civic life.
To invest in education and training to generate a highly skilled workforce. And to strengthen institutions. The Doha Programme of Action is a practical guide to address all these issues.
It contains concrete targets and deliverables such as a ‘Sustainable Graduation Support Facility,’ an ‘Investment Support Centre’, and an ‘Online University’, which can play a game-changing role in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals in Least Developed Countries.
I call upon Development Partners to support the implementation of these deliverables and the achievement of the Doha Programme of Action targets.
Second — we need to reform the global financial system through a new Bretton Woods moment.
International financial institutions must develop creative ways to extend financing where the needs are greatest.
This includes expanding contingency financing and integrating disaster and pandemic clauses into debt instruments.
It is also time to accelerate the re-allocation of Special Drawing Rights from the richest countries to those who need help the most.
Multilateral Development Banks should transform their business model to massively leverage their funds to attract greater flows of private finance at reasonable cost into developing countries, in particular Least-Developed Countries.
And we must find new, common-sense ways to measure countries’ economies — such as developing lending criteria that go beyond Gross Domestic Product to provide a true view of the value of natural capital such as the preservation of forests, watersheds and marine resources.
Doa Programs bring the solutions for Peoples and Country where be hind
The President Chakwera of Malawi, Chair of LDC Group, Said,” Our path to responsible and responsive development in this new world involves working together leaving no one behind that is the promise of the DPOA. Doha, 4 March 2023
Challenges that require a globally coordinated response. Ours is a development path that must surmount the challenges of a global market system with trade rules and financial systems that are skewed against us.
Ours is a development path that is about the devastation that our economies suffer from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Climate change impacts (repeats ‘ours is a development path that must surmount the challenges of’)
The distress our economies are under. From owing mountains of debt to rich nations that can afford to write them off.
The lending practices of financial institutions that are global powers that have no incentive to put our interests above their own. The seismic shocks our economies feel from distant wars that either cut off our access to or inflate the prices of strategic commodities like fuel and fertilizer. And none of these obstacles in our path can be surmounted by any of us on our own.”
Base on Malawi President describe out Recent figures published in the World Economic Situation Report.” Over the last two years, output losses were larger in LDCs than anywhere else. DPOA: first it places the responsibility on LDCs themselves, it strengthens the unity, solidarity and cohesion among the 46 LDCs. We represent around one fourth of the UN membership.
It calls on development partners to support our efforts Includes a strong follow-up monitoring mechanism with real-time data and substantive information and backstopping, It insures that our deliberations are not merely rhetorical as we are not gathered here just for talk. We have real work to do, and deliverables to produce.
Together we will deliver an online university, an investment promotion regime, a food stockholding mechanism, a crisis mitigation and resilience building mechanism, a graduation support package that ensures a smooth transition from the LDC category, just to name a few.
Antonio Guterres Secretary General of the UN: Countries with the least support the most. The need of support is something that is required now. You represent one in eight people on earth.
Your countries are trapped in vicious cycles that make development difficult. And I can reassure you that we are perfectly aware of the inequities that are created by our unfair global economic and financial system and determined to change it by reforms and by adequate sources of support to least developed countries.
Because economic development is challenging when countries are starved for resources, drowning in debt, and are still struggling with historic injustice amid an unequal COVID-19 response. Starting by vaccines and then by the very unfair access to the resources needed for recovery.
Human development is also challenging when education and social protection systems are struggling and when women are denied their rightful place at the table in every aspect of civil, economic and political life.
A thriving business community, the creation of decent jobs is challenging if economies are stuck in first gear exporting raw materials without opportunities for structural transformation to rapidly move up the value chain.
And combating climate catastrophe that it did nothing to cause is challenging when the cost of capital is sky high and the financial support to mitigate the depth of destruction is s drop in the bucket.
You risk to be left behind in the digital revolution without the support of technology you need for social and economic development or job creation.
Easing the cost of living crisis grows more difficult by the day, with the war in Ukraine accelerating the rising prices of energy and food.
The impacts of droughts, poverty, hunger and extreme poverty and the result is s perfect storm for perpetuating poverty and injustice. We must end this storm. But we must recognize that to end this storm will require massive and sustainable investment. And least developed countries require and deserve massive financial and economic support.
Our global financial system was designed by wealthy countries and largely to their benefit. That is why we are insisting so strongly mainly to the G20 for its reform.
Many of you are locked out of capital markets by predatory interest rates … you can spend an ever growing share of government revenue on debt service.
Large parts of the care economy, particularly in developing countries, are not even taken into account this is nonsense. We measure development in a completely wrong way.”
President Jose. Ramos-Horta of Timor-Leste at the 5th United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDC5) He Expressed. “Profuse appreciation is due to our gracious Qatari hosts, for the generous hospitality in hosting this LDC Summit in partnership with our much esteemed Secretary-General.
In these turbulent times whose impact we all feel in varying degrees, I am pleased to share the good news that Timor-Leste is an oasis of tranquility, where political violence, ethnic or religious based intolerance and conflict are completely absent. And ours is a vibrant, functioning democracy that delivers, our people enjoying complete political, religious, intellectual, media freedom.
We continue to strive to achieve greater empowerment of women, youth and those in our society afflicted with disabilities.
On May 21st we will hold parliamentary elections, more than 20 political parties are registered. We have now 20 years of a robust track record of free and fair elections.
We are still in the category of fragile and LDC but nevertheless we share our experience and provided significant support, including financial, for electoral processes in Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe and Central African Republic.”
Timor-Leste is an active founding member of the g7+ group of Fragile States – which brings together sisterly countries in conflict or are in post conflict and fragility.
“ We have achieved significant progress in socio-economic development. At independence in 2002 our indicators placed us at the very bottom of the world. Two in five people in Timor-Leste lived on less than 55 cents per day; life expectancy was 57 years; we had high levels of maternal mortality and 43 percent of population was illiterate.
Revenues from oil and gas allowed us to close some of the social and infrastructure gaps, with investments in deep water port, expansion of our international airport, national and rural roads, schools, electricity, etc. This helped bring development benefits to the people around the country. Life expectancy increased from 57 to 70 years and so have many of the socio-economic indicators.
We hope to conclude agreement soon with our Joint Venture partners to develop a major gas field called Greater Sunrise with a pipeline to our shores to spur value added industries like fertilizer plant and cheaper clean energy. Timor-Leste and other resource rich countries cannot. Continue to be mere suppliers of commodities and remain hostage of predatory pricing by developed economies.
The key focus areas of the Doha Plan of Action resonate with our own strategic priorities. We believe that its implementation will drive the diversification of our economy providing jobs for our young and increasingly educated population.
President Timor – Leste to address each of these focus areas from the perspective of Timor-Leste.
1. Investing in people, eradicating poverty and building capacity
The LDC Report 2021 produced by UNCTAD positively assessed economic growth in Timor-Leste, calling it “inclusive in both absolute and relative sense”. It means that economic growth indeed reduced poverty and increased prosperity. However, disappointingly, around 42 percent of the Timorese population still live below the national poverty line. Fundamental challenges such as extreme poverty and child malnutrition persist despite our modest oil and gas revenues. We need growth to translate into greater prosperity for the people. Increasing effectiveness of government spending will be key for this.
A healthier and more skilled workforce will be necessary for greater productivity and diversification of our economy.
Since the start of my tenure in May 2022, I strongly advocate targeting child malnutrition via way of strengthening government programmes and mobilizing support from our development partners. Investing in human capital starts from the first 1000 days of the child and pre-school education facilities.
2. Leveraging the power of science, technology & innovation
Having completed demarcation of maritime boundaries with Australia, Timor-Leste Leste sovereignty extends over vast ocean resources several times larger than our land area. Blue economy represents promising area for diversification and ensuring that the environment is preserved for future. Potential of blue economy can be truly transformational.
Marine renewable energy, green port development and sustainable marine transportation are also major blue economy investment opportunities in Timor-Leste .
Community-based tourism can make use of our country’s rich natural endowment, biodiversity and cultural heritage. A study conducted by Conservation International in 2016 confirm that the seas of Timor-Leste host the richest biodiversity in the world.
We hope that the implementation of the Doha Programme of Action will help realize this ambitious vision, supporting countries undergoing green and blue transition with the latest advances in science, technology, and innovation.
3. Supporting structural transformation as a driver of prosperity
Despite progress made since independence, Timor-Leste remains one among the world’s most oil-dependent nations. Economic diversification is a long-term process. While investments in infrastructure were necessary it is not the only path to economic diversification. Structural transformation efforts need to be stepped up.
As our modest economy cannot generate enough jobs, young people increasingly leave the country for seasonal programmes abroad. While remittances provide important lifeline to Timorese families, they don’t compensate for the significant losses that labour migration causes to national economy.
Some progress has been made. Coffee became the largest non-oil export from Timor-Leste. Despite challenges related to market access, in recent years coffee producers were able to occupy niche markets. While this experience shows that diversification is possible, much more needs to be done to achieve structural transformation.
The Government and development partners, including UNDP and KOICA, support programmes on youth entrepreneurship. The Government launched a soft loan scheme supporting young entrepreneurs. However Timor-Leste and other developing countries continue to suffer from the extreme insensivity of rapacious interest rates that are killers of our incipient private sectors.
We are also pushing the creation of special Special Economic Zones, and we look forward to collaboration with all partners to make them effective drivers of structural change.
4. Enhancing international trade and regional integration
This year represents a watershed moment for Timor-Leste’s integration into regional and international trade. In 2023 or in the next year or two we expect to ASEAN. It has been a long-time strategic ambition, important for our country’s prosperity. We are forever indebted to our friends and neighbors for welcoming Timor-Leste into this highly reputable regional organization.
In this context, Timor-Leste’s status as a least developed country, providing tariff-free market access, is extremely important to attract foreign investment. Companies in the region are expressing interest in creating joint ventures. ASEAN membership will result in greater integration in regional value chains.
In 2023 we will gain WTO accession, another landmark for the country’s global economic integration.
We welcome WTO efforts to boost least developed countries’ participation in the global value chains and hope that the LDC status will bring opportunities and mitigate risks at the same time. Trade need to become catalyst of diversification and boosting productive capacities.
5. Tackling climate change, COVID-19 & building resilience
Recent years have tested resilience countries around the world. COVID-19 pandemic coincided with flash floods affecting thousands across the country. LDCs are disproportionally affected by the extreme weather events caused by climate change.
The experience of recent years show the fragility of our development gains – with a series of extreme events undermining and reversing progress made since independence. In view of the high costs of disaster response, we realize that going forward the country needs an approach to development that considers the multiple underlying risks to which our people are exposed.
Least developed countries bear the brunt of climate crisis and we are ready to be part of global efforts to find sustainable solutions. But we need genuine partnerships based on human fraternity.
In 2021 Timor-Leste submitted its National Adaptation Plan to UNFCCC aiming at building climate-resilient trajectory for the country and its people. It is important to make sure that green structural transformation is aligned to our strategic objective of diversification, reducing dependence on oil and gas.
The UNCTAD 2022 LDC Report provides many practical solutions for risk-informed, climate-resilient development and I hope it can be the basis for learning and sharing among countries.
6. Mobilizing international partnerships for sustainable graduation
In tackling multiple crises, we are not alone. I am grateful to all our partners that provided support – through technical assistance and budget support, vaccines, early warning and building community resilience.
International partnerships will be key for the implementation of the Doha Programme of Action and to guide countries towards smooth graduation. Least developed countries have many opportunities to advance through trade, technology and concessional finance.
While LDCs stand to gain in the thriving global market, we also have a lot to lose in the context of trade wars and violent conflicts. Recent years have been difficult for multilateralism.
I welcome the Secretary General’s initiative to establish the High-Level Advisory Board on Effective Multilateralism.
I welcome the focus of the Indian Presidency at the G20 on the resilience in LDCs and SIDS as well as efforts in this regard by the Government of Indonesia during its G20 presidency last year.
The cracks in global international order are growing wider, bridging them is not an easy task. But being here gives hope and optimism in the future of multilateralism.” Ramos Horta stated