By Cristiana X. Belo
At the UN LDC5 conference, a delegation from the National Parliament (PN) Timor-Leste and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Cooperation (MNEK) of Timor-Leste participated. In this article, we would like find out more about the reasons, why Timor-Leste is not yet able to graduate and leave less developed countries, based on United Nations studies. And what the solution is to bring back home.
On 04 to 10 March, the fifth United Nation Least Developing country (UN LDC5) conference. UN gathering and call All delegation of 46 LDCs to discuss about eight hundred million people of 10% where leaving behind and poorest. Base on UN, Committee Development Policy (CDP)
Based on United Nations studies, through the development policy Committee (CDP). CDP’s assessment of all countries – all of which stated that the countries of the LDCs have already graduated. Timor-Leste still has an underdevelopment country category because Timor-Leste does not meet the criteria of the United Nations. The event took place, at the UN LDC5 conference, at the National Convention Centre Doha, Qatar. (08 March 2023).
In this opportunity Embaixador of Timor-Leste to United Nation, described for what is LDCs?
” Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are less developed countries. The countries that came was very poor. Automatically Timor – Leste is also one of the members of the LDCS. Of the 46 countries that are still in the LDCs category. Everyone from rich countries or developed countries are trying to help from this LDC5 conference, to review what rich countries like ODA and northern countries are to work together to provide assistance to 46 poor countries so they graduate soon. Embasador of Timor-Leste to United Nation, Carlito Nunes, stated. There are ten percent (10%) of the total world population Eight hundred million (800) who come from 46 poor countries. The number of people who are left behind or are in poverty, therefore, the United Nations calls for all people who have rich or developed countries to pay attention.”
According to the Minister of Foreign Affairs cooperation MNEK Ms. Adaljiza A.R.X. Magno. That is. “Since seven (7) years of their assessment, our CDP intern, GNI, has been categorized to be gradually, since our GDP is very large but, seeing where the money comes from, the oil Fund. We can say that it is not sustainable. If we have seventeen thousand (17) or Eight hundred in the Petroleum Fund, each year we use 1.5 to two million more than ten years. We have problems, for example, if they count from our GNI, the GDP is from not only measurably, from oil money, for example from the private sector, economic activity, we can say we are more sustainable. So we always argue with them that you should give us time again. “
Adaljiza Magno stated.“In fact, by 2025 we will graduate, we are no longer members of the LDCs but we are thinking again, we will not have any internal fiscal sustainability. We will be very dependent on the oil Fund, we only say this, give our time, and we will diversify our economy. We are still in process as a member of ASEAN and the World Trade organization (WTO). In some ASEAN members three countries such as Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar are not yet graduate, they are more developing countries, they take advantage of the facilities of the LDC, and they use them to develop their country. We have not yet used these facilities maximum, for example the facilities for WTO for the export of goods. “
According to the first Vice of the National Parliament (PN) Timor – Leste, Ms. Maria Angelina Sarmento point of view that. “Timor-Leste started in 2015 to 2021 Prepare for a graduate from less developed countries, but after a study, the United Nations has not yet met many criteria to graduate.
Our human resources capacity is a reason. Our GDP will be less. Our capacity to execute loan funds that, from developed countries, will continue to be challenging to date. For example, we are not yet a member of the World Trade Organizations (WTO). We also have problems with the growing economy, and we will be very slow. Our capacity to invest the General State Budget in productive sectors such as Agriculture, Tourism, telecommunications Transport, and telecommunications Transport will be challenging for us.
Even if our revenue from the Mineral Fund that sustains our State, can be said to be in the category or graduation criteria, from less developed countries because our oil funding is very strong to sustain the existence of the State of Timor-Leste. From other perspectives, human resources are capable of executing the General State Budget. We are less developed countries. We can access the scheme for public consensus loans from developing countries.”
Based on the point of view of the first Vice of the National Parliament, the exploration of climate change is not the country of Timor-Leste but the world is the one who explores natural wealth unbalanced.
Angelita Sarmentu added.” That is, from all the assessments they do, there are many things that we have not met. Today we are talking about climate change, because we are not exploring the world, but the natural wealth is not balanced. Today the world faces the crisis of climate change. We see that today we cannot avoid climate change, such as the rise of water, floods, earthquakes, and tsunami.
The rich countries have a period in which oil and gas are explored and also the wealth of ways such as gold, White money, marble, and they are not balanced. This exploration caused climate change in the world to suffer. So today, everyone is going to cry, especially small countries, and the strong fight for developing countries must be slightly lowered to gradually reduce the exploration of natural wealth in order to balance our oil exploration with gas.”
During the UN conference meeting, the 1st Vice of National Parliament received some suggestions in the session of the theme discussion, the National Parliament and the Parliamentary Forum, from the delegation present in the plenary asked the members of Parliament of Timor-Leste to pay attention to the General State Budget (OGE) to balance climate change.
Angelita Sarmento said. ” Today we participated in the session of the National Parliament’s theme discussion, how we promote international Trade. How we gradually construct the exploration of natural resources, as well as Mineral wealth and try to balance climate Justice. I also followed a section – to the Parliamentary Forum on free oil and gas exploration. There was a presentation from speakers (a) from African countries. They are underdeveloped countries that suffer a lot from the consequences of the exploration of the wealth they have today, especially for many women who have had negative consequences of the exploration of natural wealth.
During this theme discussion, members of Parliament were asked to pay great attention to the General State Budget, and there should be a balance of climate change. They suggest Timor-Leste. “
At that time the 1st vice of the National Parliament also expressed concern for the delegation that is in the plenary, about the present person, who has tried to reduce and end the exploration of natural wealth. According to him, it will also be an obstacle to Timor – Leste. If Timor – Leste is unable to overcome its assets. At that time she asked for recommendations.
“I ask them questions about Timor-Leste’s oil, as a country that has just gained our independence 20 years ago. We have just discovered that we have a lot of Mineral wealth. The oil wealth we explore is a revenue for this State, so as to sustain our General State Budget, so that our country can develop.
Our economy, human resources, but it appears to us because, today, the world has been. If we don’t do so, we don’t explore our assets, we don’t have any other sources of revenue that could sustain our State. We continue to live for our future generations. So I also asked for their recommendations to enable Timor-Leste to leave this difficult situation.
Their recommendations are that the General Budget be spent on the State. We can carry out the General State Budget for productive sectors including putting money to the relevant Ministry to explore our Mineral assets. The amount of money generated from revenues is placed in the General Budget of a few percent State, we must allocate the climate change Budget.
We need to plant a lot of trees, we need to preserve water supply, we cannot cut off an alternative energy such as using gas, we can’t use a generator because there is no Fire, and we use a generator so we need to buy gasoline to put it into the generator.
They also said, our nation is tropical. We have free or free days and air, and we can use the hot SUN again and transform it into renewable energy. And we can see where hydropower can be developed. They provide a variety of alternatives including in the future we can also be producers to support solar panels or power for those countries that need it, for example, countries where Europe is very difficult to reach the SUN, they cannot produce solar panels.
In the past ten years the solar panel was very expensive, but now when everyone goes to the solar panel, it is a climate change. The solar panel is now growing, so Timor-Leste can become an alternative solar panel market, where our money is, we explore it in our wealth. We transform our revenues into investment in solar panels in renewable energy, selling them back to countries that see it important, so that we and they can contribute to climate Justice.” Ended Angelita Sarmento